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project:technology_timeline:start [2017/05/30 22:14]
bluebear [Genetics and medicine]
project:technology_timeline:start [2017/05/30 23:12] (current)
maxfx [Computers, information processing and machine intelligence]
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 | 1992 | Jürgen Schmidhuber proposes a solution to the vanishing gradient problem | (https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Vanishing_gradient_problem),​ the solution lies in pre-training each layer of a neural network separately with fine-tuning with backpropagation. Probably one of milestones for what will be called "deep learning"​ | | 1992 | Jürgen Schmidhuber proposes a solution to the vanishing gradient problem | (https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Vanishing_gradient_problem),​ the solution lies in pre-training each layer of a neural network separately with fine-tuning with backpropagation. Probably one of milestones for what will be called "deep learning"​ |
 | 1993 | **MP3** algorithm discovered at Fraunhofer institute | Very similarly to JPEG for images, this lossy compression algorithm for sound became de-facto standard for lower-to-medium music storage | | 1993 | **MP3** algorithm discovered at Fraunhofer institute | Very similarly to JPEG for images, this lossy compression algorithm for sound became de-facto standard for lower-to-medium music storage |
 +| 1993 | **FreeBSD** born | FreeBSD is an operating system for a variety of platforms which focuses on features, speed, and stability. It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX® developed at the University of California, Berkeley |
 | 1994 | Started work on specification of Digital Versatile Disc (**DVD**) | Started by Sony and Phillips after resolving disputes between competing formats for storage, MMCD and SD. DVDs will replace CDs soon with their much greater capacity (approx. 4G against 720M) | | 1994 | Started work on specification of Digital Versatile Disc (**DVD**) | Started by Sony and Phillips after resolving disputes between competing formats for storage, MMCD and SD. DVDs will replace CDs soon with their much greater capacity (approx. 4G against 720M) |
 | 1995 | **Java** language invented at Sun Microsystems by James Gosling | Java became standard for large-scale enterprise software, replacing COBOL, and for cell phone apps (first its reduced version, Java SE, modern Android phones use full-fledged Java); it started the app boom which lasts in 2017 | | 1995 | **Java** language invented at Sun Microsystems by James Gosling | Java became standard for large-scale enterprise software, replacing COBOL, and for cell phone apps (first its reduced version, Java SE, modern Android phones use full-fledged Java); it started the app boom which lasts in 2017 |
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 ^ Year ^ Event ^ Importance+Links ^ ^ Year ^ Event ^ Importance+Links ^
 +| 1924 | First **electroencephalography (EEG)** measurements on human (by Hans Berger) | |
 | 1953 | Double-helix DNA structure discovered by Wattson, Crick and Franklin | Beginning of modern molecular genetics | | 1953 | Double-helix DNA structure discovered by Wattson, Crick and Franklin | Beginning of modern molecular genetics |
 | 1962 | First demonstration of neurogenesis in an adult mammal brain (Joseph Altman) | Up to this discovery it was believed that neurons are never newly created in adult brain | | 1962 | First demonstration of neurogenesis in an adult mammal brain (Joseph Altman) | Up to this discovery it was believed that neurons are never newly created in adult brain |
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 | 1985 | **PCR** (polymerase chain reaction) discovered by Karry Mullis | The very basic stone of modern genetic analysis | | 1985 | **PCR** (polymerase chain reaction) discovered by Karry Mullis | The very basic stone of modern genetic analysis |
 | 1985 | fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) first applied on a human | Used to see blood flow in various parts of the brain | | 1985 | fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) first applied on a human | Used to see blood flow in various parts of the brain |
-| 1989 | T-killer cells altered to attack a specified target | Zelig Eshar shows that T-killer immunity cells can be re-targeted to attack any other cell of choice (by replacing the targeting receptor); this is considered the start of CAR-T antitumor therapy. |+| 1989 | T-killer cells altered to attack a specified target | Zelig Eshar shows that T-killer immunity cells can be re-targeted to attack any other cell of choice (by replacing the targeting receptor); this is considered the start of **CAR-T** antitumor therapy. |
 | 1990 | **Human genome project** officially launched | | | 1990 | **Human genome project** officially launched | |
-| 1992 | Functional ​MRI tested ​on humans | Allows to measure the consumption and flow of oxygen in brain (the BOLD strategy), showing what parts of the brain are in use in the moment. First test was on human visual cortex. |+| 1992 | **Functional ​magnetic resonance (fMRI)** measurement of the brain first used on humans | Allows to measure the consumption and flow of oxygen in brain (the BOLD strategy), showing what parts of the brain are in use in the moment. First test was on human visual cortex. ​
 +| 1996 | **Dolly the sheep**, the first animal cloned from somatic cell | |
 | 1998 | **Viagra** (sildenafil) approved by FDA for erectile dysfunction | A medicine originally meant for treating hypertension proved its effect on erectile dysfunction | 1998 | **Viagra** (sildenafil) approved by FDA for erectile dysfunction | A medicine originally meant for treating hypertension proved its effect on erectile dysfunction
 | 2001 | **"​CRISPR"​** term coined | Acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, marks special patterns in bacterial DNA, later shown to be part of bacterial anti-viral defense together with an enzyme that targets and cuts non-familiar DNA. This will be used by humans for DNA editing, the famous CRISPR/Cas9 technique (with caspase 9 used as the cutting agent). | | 2001 | **"​CRISPR"​** term coined | Acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, marks special patterns in bacterial DNA, later shown to be part of bacterial anti-viral defense together with an enzyme that targets and cuts non-familiar DNA. This will be used by humans for DNA editing, the famous CRISPR/Cas9 technique (with caspase 9 used as the cutting agent). |
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 | 2003 | First idea of **gene drive** | A self-promoting gene or casette that spreads to offspring with extreme probability,​ described by Austin Burt in Imperial College London, can propagate a genetic change in a population with extreme speed. (Considered too dangerous for common use.) | | 2003 | First idea of **gene drive** | A self-promoting gene or casette that spreads to offspring with extreme probability,​ described by Austin Burt in Imperial College London, can propagate a genetic change in a population with extreme speed. (Considered too dangerous for common use.) |
 | 2003 | **Human Genome Project** officially declared successfully completed | | | 2003 | **Human Genome Project** officially declared successfully completed | |
 +| 2004 | **Milwaukee protocol** | Medical regimen able to rescue patients with symptomatic rabies (using pharmacologically induced coma with nutrient replacements),​ considered 100% fatal before; yielded much information about the behavior of the rabies virus |
 | 2005 | "​Genome Sequencer 20" by Life Sciences can sequence the human genome in a month and for 300000 USD | | 2005 | "​Genome Sequencer 20" by Life Sciences can sequence the human genome in a month and for 300000 USD |
-| 2006 | 23andme launched | The first personal genetics web service, provides genetic analysis from saliva sample sent by mail. https://​23andme.com |+| 2006 | **23andme** launched | The first personal genetics web service, provides genetic analysis from saliva sample sent by mail. https://​23andme.com |
 | 2006 | **Induced pluripotent cell (iPSC)** technology discovered | By Shinya Yamanaka, Kyoto; yielded Nobel Prize in 2012) | | 2006 | **Induced pluripotent cell (iPSC)** technology discovered | By Shinya Yamanaka, Kyoto; yielded Nobel Prize in 2012) |
-| 2006 | Vaccine against human papilloma virus (HPV) |+| 2006 | Vaccine against ​**human papilloma virus (HPV)** |
 | 2008 | Primitive but multi-layered **brain-like organoids** grown from stem cells | By Yoshiki Sasai et al., RIKEN, Tokyo |  | 2008 | Primitive but multi-layered **brain-like organoids** grown from stem cells | By Yoshiki Sasai et al., RIKEN, Tokyo | 
 | 2011 | Price of whole-genome sequencing now at 5000 USD per genome (Illumina Inc.) | | 2011 | Price of whole-genome sequencing now at 5000 USD per genome (Illumina Inc.) |
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 | 2017 | **Minified Cas9-like enzyme** from Campylobacter jejuni used in medicine | Small enough to allow building an all-in-one adenovirus-coated capsule for CRISPR-Cas9 editing in vivo; first use was a test of treatment of retinitis pigmentosa. doi:​10.1038/​ncomms14500 | | 2017 | **Minified Cas9-like enzyme** from Campylobacter jejuni used in medicine | Small enough to allow building an all-in-one adenovirus-coated capsule for CRISPR-Cas9 editing in vivo; first use was a test of treatment of retinitis pigmentosa. doi:​10.1038/​ncomms14500 |
 | 2017 | Mouse embryo cultivated from embryonic stem cells and developed in vitro for 7 days | This is about 1/3 of mouse pregancy period, just before the embryo implants into the mother'​s body, a significant breakthrough for artificial womb technology. Extra-embryonic trophoblast cells were used to provide a 3D scaffolding for the embryo. DOI: 10.1126/​science.aal1810 | | 2017 | Mouse embryo cultivated from embryonic stem cells and developed in vitro for 7 days | This is about 1/3 of mouse pregancy period, just before the embryo implants into the mother'​s body, a significant breakthrough for artificial womb technology. Extra-embryonic trophoblast cells were used to provide a 3D scaffolding for the embryo. DOI: 10.1126/​science.aal1810 |
-| 2017 | Atlas of long non-coding RNA sequences (with precise 5' ends) launched at RIKEN, Tokyo | doi:​10.1038/​nature21374 |+| 2017 | Atlas of **long non-coding RNA** sequences (with precise 5' ends) launched at RIKEN, Tokyo | doi:​10.1038/​nature21374 |
 | 2017 | FDA approves first anti-cancer drug, pembrolizumab,​ to be prescribed based on cancer genetics rather than its type | First approved use of an anti-cancer medicine based not on how the cancer superficially looks but what it really is. http://​dx.doi.org/​10.1056/​NEJMoa1500596 | | 2017 | FDA approves first anti-cancer drug, pembrolizumab,​ to be prescribed based on cancer genetics rather than its type | First approved use of an anti-cancer medicine based not on how the cancer superficially looks but what it really is. http://​dx.doi.org/​10.1056/​NEJMoa1500596 |
  
 
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